Драгоев, Драгомир; Dragoev, Dragomir
Изследване и проектиране на технологичните процеси за прибиране на пшеница в растениевъдството
Analysis and Design of technological processes for harvesting wheat in plant breeding
Тракийски университет - Факултет техника и технологии
пшеница; прибиране; технологични процеси
With the existing wheat harvesting technologies, the use of wheat harvesting machines is complex: grain harvesters and conveyors, which has a significant effect on the efficiency of the harvesting of wheat. In this regard, issues related to the optimization of the number of vehicles serving grain harvesters in cereal harvesting, taking into account the probability of working capacity, forecasting their productivity and their effective use for obtaining the estimated economic effect, become more and more relevant. Object of research is the organization of harvesting wheat in technology for wheat growing. Subject of research are the main parameters of the technology for harvesting wheat. The aim of the study is to optimize the parameters of organization of work in the implementation of wheat harvesting technology, allowing to increase the capacity of grain and transport vehicles and the efficiency of their use. Methods of research used are mathematical statistics, theory of random Markov processes; theory of mass service, complex and system approaches. Place of conducting the research. The study was conducted in an agricultural company in Yambol District, which owns three CLAAS grain harvesters, Lexion 570, Lexion 470 and CLAAS models Lexion 600, Lexion 470, owned by another company. The condition of the grain harvesters is commemorated and the transition in the different states of the Markov random processes is described and a mathematical model is proposed for determining the probability number of machines in different conditions according to the wheat harvesting technology. A mathematical model for the optimization of the number of transport vehicles serving the wheat harvesting complex, based on the apparatus of the mass service theory, was developed and proposed. A mathematical model for determining the back-up performance of the machine technology complex is justified. Technological service and troubleshooting times have been found to have a pronounced negative impact, with a high intensity, on the likelihood of the machine being in a workable state. In order to reduce their impact to the minimum possible, the organization needs to provide the necessary modern diagnostic and service facilities. It has been proved that the two main parameters of the mathematical model for optimizing the number of vehicles for servicing the wheat harvesting operation have a different intensity of influence, with the effect of the number of vehicles in the waiting state being be loaded by the grain harvesters. From the analysis of the graphical and theoretical dependencies, It is found that the average number of grain combines waiting to be served by the means of transport (ms) is the most significant impact on the aggregate cost, indicating that we must create such an organization that we will provide the necessary number of transport means and quick service of the grain harvesters upon arrival of the means of transport. It has been proven that the higher cost of staying costs of grain-harvesters (C1) results in a higher optimal number of means of transport (n), and the higher cost of staying of vehicles (C2) to a less optimal number of means of transport (n).